Q.What is Cleaner Production ?
UNEP defines cleaner production as

....the continuous application of an integrated preventive environmental strategy applied to processes, products, and services in order to increase efficiency and reduce risks to humans and the environment.

  • For production processes: Cleaner production includes conserving raw materials and energy, eliminating toxic raw materials, and reducing the quantity and toxicity of all emissions and wastes
  • For products: Cleaner production includes the reduction of negative impacts along the life cycle of a product, from raw material extraction to its ultimate disposal; and
  • For services: Cleaner production is to incorporate environmental concerns into designing and delivering services.

Cleaner production is different from end-of-pipe treatment, i.e. treatment of air emissions, wastewater and solid waste. With end-of-pipe treatment you reduce the pollution load, but you do not recover the lost raw materials. Therefore, end-of-pipe treatment is always expenditure, whereas cleaner production brings economic benefit in addition to the reduced pollution load. Cleaner production is the same as waste minimization and pollution prevention. Cleaner production is also a useful step towards environmental management, e.g. ISO 14001

Q.Benefits of Cleaner Production
Cleaner production is relevant to all industries, whether they are small or big, or they have a low or high consumption of raw materials, energy, and water. For far the most companies, there is a potential of reducing the resource consumption with 10-15%!
Cleaner enterprises are better enterprises
Why? Because cleaner enterprises have minimised their losses of raw materials and products, thus giving them a higher production yield and an overall better economy and competitiveness.

New and improved market opportunities
Increasing consumer awareness of environmental issues has led to a spurt in demand of green products in the international market. Consequently, if you put in conscious efforts towards cleaner production, you open up new market opportunities and produce better quality products, saleable at a higher price.
Better access to finances Investment proposals based on cleaner production contain detailed information on the economic, technical and environmental feasibility of the planned investment. This gives a very solid basis for achieving financial support from banks or environmental funds.
On the international market, financial institutions are awakening to the problems of environmental degradation, and are now scrutinising applications for loans from an environmental angle.
Better image of your company Cleaner production reflects and improves the overall image of your company. Needless to mention, a company with a green image has a better acceptance both by the society as well as the regulatory authorities.

ISO 14000 Cleaner production will make it much easier to implement an environmental management system such as ISO 14000. This is because most of the initial work already has been carried out through the cleaner production assessment. An ISO 14000 certificate can be a market opener, giving better access to export markets. Having made a cleaner production assessment will maker it much easier to implement an environmental management system as ISO 14001. Better working environment Apart from improving the economical and environmental performance, cleaner production can also improve the occupational health and safety conditions for the employees.
Favourable working conditions can boost the morale of staff and at the same time foster a concern for controlling waste. Such actions will help your company gain a competitive edge.
Better compliance with environmental regulations Meeting the regulatory standards for discharge of wastes (liquid, solid or gaseous) requires often installation of expensive and complex pollution control systems like wastewater treatment plants. With cleaner production the treatment of residual effluents normally becomes easier and cheaper. This is because cleaner production leads to an all round reduction in wastes: volume-wise; load-wise; and even toxicity-wise!

    Benefits of Cleaner Production also includes:
  • Improved production efficiency;
  • Better utilization of raw materials, water and energy;
  • Recovery of valuable by-products;
  • Less pollution;
  • Lower cost for waste disposal and wastewater treatment;
  • Improved public image; and
  • Improved occupational health and safety

Q.Examples of Cleaner Production Options
Cleaner Production Options relates not only to changing equipment, but also to the operation and management of the company. Cleaner Production Options can be grouped into:

i) Waste reduction at source;
ii) Recycling; and
iii)Product modifications.

Waste reduction at source
Going to the source of pollution is the fundamental idea of cleaner production.
Good housekeeping is the simplest type of the cleaner production options. Good housekeeping requires no investments and can be implemented as soon as the options are identified. Good housekeeping is e.g. to repair all leaks and avoid losses by closing water taps and turning off equipment when not needed. Even though good housekeeping is simple, it requires focus from the management and training of staff.
Better process control is to ensure that the process conditions are optimal with respect to resource consumption, production and waste generation. Process parameters such as temperature, time, pressure, pH, processing speed, etc. have to be monitored and maintained as close to the optimum as possible. As with good house keeping, better process control requires improved monitoring and management focus.
Material substitution is to purchase higher quality materials that give a higher efficiency. Often there is a direct relation between the quality of the raw materials and the amount and quality of the products. Material substitution is furthermore to replace existing materials with some that are environmentally better.
Equipment modification is to improve the existing equipment so less material is wasted. Equipment modification can be to adjust the speed of an engine, to optimise the size of a storage tank, to insulate hot and cold surfaces, or to improve the design of a crucial part of the equipment. One example from electroplating is to construct drip hangers to recover drag out from the plated parts.
New process technology is to install modern and more efficient equipment, e.g. a highly efficient boiler or a jet-dyeing machine with a low liquor ratio. New process technology requires higher investments than the other cleaner production options and should therefore be considered carefully. However, the potential savings and quality improvements often pays back the investment in a very short time.
RecyclingWaste streams that are unavoidable might be recycled within the company or might be sold as by-products.
On-site recovery and reuse is to collect "waste" and reuse it in the same or a different part of the production. One simple example is to reuse rinse water from one process to another cleaning process.
Creation of by-products is to collect (and treat) "waste-streams" so they can be sold to consumers or to other companies. Excess yeast from a brewery can for instance be used for pig fodder, fish farming or as a food additive.
Product modification Improving the products so they pollute less is also a fundamental idea of cleaner production.
Changing the product is to re-think the product and the requirements to the product. For instance, if it is possible to replace a painted metal shield with a plastic shield for a certain product, then the environmental problems and costs related to paint finishing could be avoided. Improved product design can result in large savings on material consumption and use of hazardous chemicals. Changing packaging can be just as important. The key word is to minimise the packaging and maintaining the protection of the product. One example is to use recycled cardboard instead of plastic foam for protection of fragile items.

Q.How to do Cleaner Production Assessment ?
To be able to identify cleaner production options, it is necessary to carry out a cleaner production assessment.

Management commitment:A successful cleaner production assessment demands a strong commitment from the manager. It requires the direct involvement and supervision, and the seriousness has to be reflected in actions, not only in words.

Operator’s Involvement:Supervisors and operators should be actively involved right from the beginning of a cleaner production assessment. The shop floor staff is of great help in identifying and implementing measures for cleaner production.

Systematic approach:For cleaner production to be effective and sustainable, it is essential to formulate and adopt a systematic approach. Initially, it may be alluring to work on a piecemeal basis as the immediate benefits might be more appealing. However, the interest soon drops if long-term sustainable benefits are not realized.
How to obtain management commitment?

  • Estimate the value of resources lost as waste;
  • Highlight the environmental (and legal) consequences of this waste generation; and
  • Emphasize how cleaner production can improve the current situation.
To be able to identify cleaner production options, it is necessary to carry out a cleaner production assessment
The cleaner production assessment focuses on:
  • WHERE waste and emissions are generated;
  • WHY waste and emissions are generated; and
  • HOW waste and emissions can be minimized in your company.
Cleaner Production assessment is a useful tool to systematically investigate the existing production and to identify opportunities for improving the production or the products.
Six steps towards cleaner production
The cleaner production assessment is carried out in the following six steps:
Step: 1 Getting started
Step: 2 Analyzing process steps
Step: 3 Generating cleaner production options
Step: 4 Selecting cleaner production options
Step: 5 Implementing cleaner production options
step: 6Maintaining cleaner production
Cleaner production is an ongoing process. Once finished with one cleaner production assessment, the next should be started to improve even more or to continue with another focus area.

Step:1 Getting Started
First of all the management should be committed to the cleaner production work. The cleaner production assessment will require working hours for gathering information and for developing options. Furthermore, some expenses are likely to occur, e.g. for installation of water meters and for having samples analyzed.

i)Form a cleaner production team
The manager should appoint a cleaner production team to carry out the cleaner production assessment. When doing so, the manager should keep in mind that the members should have the necessary authority, skills and time to carry out the cleaner production assessment.

The project team should consist of representatives from:
  • Management level;
  • Accounting and/or storage department;
  • Production departments; and
  • Technical departments, e.g. steam supply section and maintenance department
Besides, it can be very useful to include external experts in the cleaner production team in order to have a third-eye approach.

ii) List process steps/units operations
Initially, the cleaner production team should make an overview of the entire company by listing all unit operations and their main inputs and outputs.
A detailed and elaborate flow diagram (or activity diagram) should be made. This is necessary to get a proper overview and understanding of the manufacturing process.
Special attention should be given to periodic activities, e.g. cleaning and regeneration, as they quite often are highly wasteful.
The inputs and outputs on the flow diagrams should be labeled appropriately for later reference.

iii)Identify and select wasteful unit operations
Based in the flow diagram and through site-inspection the team should identify wasteful unit operations.
The focus area should be selected so it is likely that economically attractive cleaner production options can be identified. Unit operations that result in high losses of materials or products; or where there is a high reprocessing rate should be included in the focus area.

Step:2 Analyzing process steps
During this step detailed material and energy balances should be made in order to quantify the amount of waste, its costs and its causes. The balances will furthermore provide a baseline showing the resource consumption and waste generation before cleaner production.
For the selected focus area(s) the flow diagram(s) should be further elaborated, to ensure that all processes/activities are included, and that all inputs and outputs are listed on the diagrams.
Next, the data for making material and energy balances should be collected. This will require a lot of work and measurements. It can be necessary to install meters to measure the consumption of water and electricity.
Quantifying the inputs and outputs is the only way to identify losses that normally go by unnoticed.
How to make material balance?
  • If an input or output cannot be measured, make a qualified estimate.
The material balance should be based on actual figures. Figures from work procedures, equipment specifications and other “how-it-ought-to-be” figures are of no use.
Energy balance Making an energy balance can be even more complicated than the material balance. Instead of making an actual balance it can be very useful to make a survey of the inputs and the losses.
For steam supply system, you need to measure the amount of fuel used, the boiler losses, and estimate the heat losses from poorly insulated surfaces, steam leaks and discharged condensate.
Waste stream characterization
The waste stream characterization consists of three parts:
  • Quantifying the waste streams (the figures should be obtained from the material balance);
  • Describing the content and the environmental impact of the waste streams; and
  • Assigning costs (e.g. value of lost materials and cost of treatment) of the waste streams.
The cost assignment gives a very good picture of how much money is lost with each waste stream. At the same times such figures creates commitment; indicates the potential of savings; and shows how high investments may be to avoid or minimize the waste streams.
Cause Analysis
For each important waste stream a cause analysis should be made with the aim to find the underlying cause for the waste stream.
It is not enough to stay that the cause is “old equipment” or “poor quality”. You have to find the specific causes to the waste generation, e.g. “that the raw material contains more than 2% of impurities that are acceptable”.
Hence, a very good understanding of the processes and the operation parameters is needed to make a proper cause analysis.
Asking Why?
The cause analysis is based on asking why. The four main questions are:
  • Why this waste stream? Why is this step needed?
  • Why such a high consumption of materials, chemicals and energy? Why so much waste?
  • Why these properties of the waste? Why using this equipment and these process conditions?
  • Why discharge? Why not recyclable?
Step:3 Generating cleaner production options
Based on the work made during the previous steps, this step aims at developing, listing and describing workable cleaner production options.
From cause to options
For each identified cause there will be one or more cleaner production options. It requires creativity and knowledge to identify the options.
Group discussion and “brain storming” might enhance the generation of options. A good cause analysis makes it much easier to develop good cleaner production options.
It is worthwhile to consider inviting experts from suppliers or consulting companies to participate in the generation of cleaner production options.
Select workable options
The list of proposed cleaner production options should be reviewed to identify:
  • Options that can be implemented directly;
  • Options that needs further study; and
  • Options that can be rejected because they aren’t realistic or feasible.
The options that can be implemented directly should be done so. Keep a list of the implemented cleaner production options to document the achievements of the cleaner production work.
The options that need further study should be evaluated during the next step.

Step:4 Selecting cleaner production options
For the more complicated cleaner production options, it is necessary to carry out detailed feasibility study focusing in technical, economical and environmental aspects.
Technical feasibility
Some of the aspects that should be covered during the technical feasibility are:
  • Production capacity;
  • Close-down-time during installation;
  • Operation and maintenance requirements;
  • Occupational health and safety aspects.
The following expected benefits are part of the technical feasibility study:
  • Production capacity;
  • Cost comparison, for alternatives with similar income but different costs;
  • Profit comparison: based on the income and the savings of each alternative;
  • Return on investment: relates the profits with the invested capital;
  • Payback period;
  • Net Present Value (NPV); and
  • Internal Rate of Return (IRR).
The payback period is commonly used because it is easy and fast to calculate. For cleaner production options that require big investment it is necessary to make a more detailed economical analysis, e.g. NPV and IRR.
Environmental feasibility
For most options the environmental feasibility is obvious; however, it should be evaluated whether any negative environmental impacts exceed the positive aspects.Select options for implementation/br>The results of the technical, financial and environmental evaluation have to be combined in order to select the best options. This can be done using the weighed sum method shown below.

Step:5 Implementing cleaner production options
Many low-cost and no-cost options, e.g. repairing leaks, closing running taps or providing training to staff, should have been implemented during the first steps of the cleaner production assessment. It not, they should be implemented as soon as possible.
To be able to document the success of the cleaner production assessment it is very important to keep a list of options that have been implemented.
The remaining options that are selected for implementation should be implemented according to an action plan approved by the management.
It can be necessary to further document the options to obtain this approval or to get adequate funding.
When the options are implemented, it is important to monitor the new resource consumption/waste generation level to evaluate the success of the options.

Step: 6 Maintaining cleaner production
If cleaner production is to take root and continually be successful, it is imperative that the cleaner production team does not lose momentum after it has implemented a few cleaner production options.
Monitor and evaluate results
Sustaining cleaner production is best achieved when it becomes part of the daily management. Routinely monitoring on company and process level is a key to sustaining cleaner production.
Continuously integrate cleaner production into daily management
Setting up an environmental management system, certified or not, will ensure that cleaner production is maintained on the agenda of the company.
Implementation of an ISO 14000 certified environmental management system can be a valuable continuation of cleaner production.

Q.Barriers to Cleaner Production
The role of GCPC-ENVIS Centre is to disseminate the concept of “Cleaner Production” & “Clean Technology” to its various users i.e., industries, students, academicians, researchers, environmental consultants, government and non-government organizations to promote green & sustainable industrial development.

Myths about cleaner production

There are many myths about cleaner production. All these are wrong:

  • Cleaner production is only good for large companies;
  • Cleaner production requires big investments;
  • Cleaner production requires modern technology

Q.What is ENVIS Stands for & what is its objectives?
ENVIS Stands for “Environmental Information System”. Realizing the importance of Environmental Information, the Government of India, in December, 1982, established an Environmental Information System (ENVIS) as a plan programme. The focus of ENVIS since inception has been on providing environmental information to decision makers, policy planners, scientists and engineers, research workers, etc. all over the country.

Since environment is a broad-ranging, multi-disciplinary subject, a comprehensive information system on environment would necessarlly involve effective participation of concerned institutions/ organisations in the country that are actively engaged in work relating to different subject areas of environment. ENVIS has, therefore, developed itself with a network of such participating institutions/organisations for the programme to be meaningful.

A large number of nodes, known as ENVIS Centres, have been established in the network to cover the broad subject areas of environment with a Focal Point in the Ministry of Environment & Forests. Both the Focal Point as well as the ENVIS Centres have been assigned various responsibilities to achieve the Long-term & Short-term objectives. For this purpose, various services has been introduced by the Focal Point. ENVIS due to its comprehensive network has been designed as the National Focal Point (NFP) for INFOTERRA, a global environmental information network of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). In order to strengthen the information activities of the NFP, ENVIS was designated as the Regional Service Centre (RSC) of INFOTERRA of UNEP in 1985 for the South Asia Sub-Region countries.

The ENVIS Centres serve as information collection, collation, storage, retrieval and dissemination points on specific subject areas, and for the State/ UT as a whole. The benefit of the Scheme is that a decentralized comprehensive information network functions in the country to provide relevant and timely information to various users. It provides interactive access to environmental information electronically for each user, as and when needed. Such a system would not only provide backup support for conducting pioneering research in the field of environment but also provides a support system for decision making at National/ State/ local bodies. It also supports the various missions undertaken by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change. ENVIS, by providing scientific, technical and semi-technical information on various environmental issues, serves as the backbone of decision making and environment management at all levels of Government. It has been making valuable contribution in environmental protection and its improvement for sustaining good quality of life for all living beings.

ENVIS Objectives
Long-Term Objectives

  • to build up a repository and dissemination centre in Environmental Science and Engineering
  • to gear up state-of-the-art technologies of information acquisition, processing, storage, retrieval and dissemination of information of environmental nature and;
  • to support and promote research, development and innovation in environmental information technology
Short-Term Objectives
  • to provide national environmental information service relevant to present needs and capable of development to meet the future needs of the users, originators, processors and disseminators of information;
  • to build up storage, retrieval and dissemination capabilities with the ultimate objectives of disseminating information speedily to the users;
  • to promote, national and international cooperation and liaison for exchange of environment related information;
  • to promote, support and assist education and personnel training programmes designed to enhance environmental information processing and utilization capabilities;
  • to promote exchange of information amongst developing countries

Q.What is the role of GCPC-ENVIS Centre ?
The role of GCPC-ENVIS Centre is to disseminate the concept of “Cleaner Production” & “Clean Technology” to its various users i.e., industries, students, academicians, researchers, environmental consultants, government and non-government organizations to promote green & sustainable industrial development.

The objectives of GCPC-ENVIS Centre includes:

  • To create awareness on Cleaner Production.
  • To provide cost effective training to industrial personnel on Cleaner Production assessment and implementation.
  • To organize and conduct Cleaner Production Assessment Projects in different clusters
  • To develop expertise and thus provide consultancy / advisory services on Cleaner Production.
  • To prepare guidelines and manuals preferably in local language on Cleaner Production.
  • To promote local Cleaner Production centers.
  • To conduct Cleaner Technology Assessment Projects in different industries of Gujarat.
  • To assist Government in framing the policy for CP/CT promotion.

Q.Does Government Assists / help financially in implementing Cleaner Production & Clean Technologies?
Financial Assistance is provided by Industries Commissionerate, Government of Gujarat under Gujarat Industrial Policy, 2015 on implementation of Cleaner Production and Clean Technologies. Please follow the link to get details about the scheme. http://www.gcpcenvis.nic.in/Cleaner.aspx
Gujarat Cleaner Production Centre with support of Department of Forests and Environment, Government of Gujarat is also representing Gujarat Cleaner Production Award for successful implementation of Cleaner Production and Clean Technologies by the industries of Gujarat. The major criteria’s for Cleaner Production includes Reduction in Solid & Liquid Waste including Reduction in Water and Energy Consumption by the industries.

Q What is the Industrial scenario in Gujarat?
The industrial sector at present comprises of over 4, 50,000 micro, small and medium industries. As per the results of the Annual Survey of Industry (ASI), 2010-11 carried out by the Central Statistical Organization (CSO), under Ministry of Statistics and Program Implementation, Government of India, Gujarat accounts for 16.92% of fixed capital investment, 17.25% of gross output and 12.70% of net value added in industrial sector in India.

Q Details of Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETPs) in Gujarat
There are total 34 CETPs in Gujarat in which 28 are in operational and 6 are proposed. Of these CETPs, 15 are in GIDC estates and 19 are outside the GIDC estates. Total capacity of CETPs is 706.785 MLD and total number of members is 6483.

Q. Details of Treatment Stabilisation Disposal Facilities (TSDF) in Gujarat
There are eight Common Treatment Stabilisation Disposal Facilities in operation in Gujarat.

Sr. No. Operator of TSDF
1. Naroda Enviro Projects Ltd., Naroda, Ahmedabad
2. Green Environment Co-operative Society Ltd., Vatva, Ahmedabad.
3. Nandesari Enviro Control Ltd., Nandesari, Vadodara
4. Bharuch Enviro Infrastructure Ltd., Ankleshwar
5 Vapi Waste & Effluent Management Co., Vapi
6 Gujarat Enviro Protection & Infrastructure Ltd., Surat
7 Gujarat Maritime Board, Alang dist: Bhavnagar
8 Saurashtra Enviro Project Pvt. Ltd., Juna Katariya Ta: Bhachau dist: Kutch

Q. What does ENVIS and GCPC stands for?
ENVIS Stands for Environment Information System. GCPC Gujarat Cleaner Production Centre.

Q. What is the total number of ENVIS centres?
There are total 67 ENVIS Centres all over India, which are assigned with different subjects and topics.

Q. What is the role of ENVIS centre in GCPC?
Gujarat Cleaner Production Centre (GCPC) is functioning as an ENVIS - Centre on the subject area "Cleaner Production and Technology". GCPC started its activities as ENVIS Node from January 2003. The Node has been converted to ENVIS Centre from February 2005. As a part of the various activities of the centre, web site of GCPC-ENVIS has been launched. GCPC-ENVIS has already published thirty four issues of (quarterly) Newsletter from July 2003till date. GCPC - ENVIS centre through working on the various objectives is trying to spread the concept of Cleaner Production / Cleaner Technology.

Q. What are the objectives of GCPC-ENVIS centre?
Objectives are,
1. Contribution of news items for ENVIS newsletter on monthly basis 2. To establish and operate a distributed clearinghouse to answer queries related to allocated subject 3. To establish linkages with information users, carriers and providers from government, academia, business and Non-governmental organizations including that with ENVIS. 4. To build up Repositories and Dissemination Centers in various subject areas of Environment and Environmental Engineering. 5. To adopt modern technologies of information acquisition, processing, storage, retrieval and dissemination. 6. To support and promote research, development and innovation in environment information technology 7. To provide national environmental information service relevant to present needs and capable of development to meet the future needs of users. 8. To build up storage, retrieval and dissemination capabilities with the ultimate objective of disseminating information speedily to the users 9. To promote national and international cooperation and liaison for exchange of Environment related information. 10. To promote exchange of information among countries and region.

Q Can I be a subscriber for newsletter? If yes what are the year wise charges?
You can download News letter on our website:

Website GCPC - www.gcpcgujarat.org.in
ENVIS - www.gcpcenvis.nic.in/PublicationNewsletter.aspx

If you required in a printed form, write a request to following address:

Address Dr. Bharat Jain - Member Secretary
Gujarat Cleaner Production Centre – ENVIS centre
Block No. 11 & 12, 3rd Floor,
Udhyog Bhavan, Sector – 11,
Gandhinagar – 382017, Gujarat, India
Tel Fax No +91 79 232 44147
Email Id gcpc-env@nic.in
Email Id info@gcpcgujarat.org.in

Q Can I refer Book for Cleaner Production?
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